Should Golfers Push, Pull or Carry Their Clubs?

Thu Dec 1, 2016 by Dr. Josh Nelson

To push, pull or, carry.... That is the question! As a golf specific health professional this is something I get asked on almost a daily basis. Firstly, it's important to understand that golf is a game that requires all of your muscles, joints, and other soft tissues to work in synergy in order to give you the best chance of reaching your peak performance. Gone are the days where you almost needed a senior citizens card to use a buggy, and carrying your clubs on your back was looked upon as a sign of your golfing ability and toughness! All you need to do is take a stroll around your local golf course these days to see the amount of people now utilising the latest in push/pull buggy technology to realise that more and more people are using golf as a way to stay active and healthy whilst chasing that elusive single figure handicap.

The first question that needs to be answered is whether or not it is better to carry your clubs or use a buggy of some sort. In almost all situations I believe it to be much better (and safer) to use a buggy rather than lugging your clubs around 18 holes. Carrying your clubs not only places a huge amount of compressive force on your spine, but also causes lactic acid build up in the surrounding muscles causing fatigue and you guessed it..... Injuries! As a Sports Chiropractor, I am always looking at people's posture around my local course and I cringe when I see our juniors lugging around a set of clubs half their body weight, hunched forward with their head two feet in front of the rest of their body. There is also the issue of dropping and lifting the bag potentially over 100 times throughout a round which places even more torsional stress on the spine (especially considering the average golf bag weighs between 8 and 15kgs). This could potentially be the beginning of a lifetime of spinal health issues if not addressed early enough! The latest research out of Europe also shows that carrying your bag leads to a decreased ability to score and an increased chance of injury!

Dr. Neil Wolkodoff, medical director of the Colorado Center for Health and Sports Science, conducted a study on the physical effects of using a push cart vs carrying a bag.  His findings indicate that physical benefits of carrying your bag are minimal.  Golfers in his study who carried their clubs burned an average of 721 calories over 9 holes compared to 718 calories burned by golfers who used a push cart.

"One of the suprising realizations was that just swinging a club about 100 times uses up a significant amount of energy," Wolkodoff said, "The golf swing is tough on the back no matter how you look at it. If you can use a push cart and keep one more stress away from the back that's a great thing."

Additionally, research suggests that golfers who carry increase their risk of injury to shoulder, back and ankle.

Overall, the case for carts was compelling enough that in 2009 the American Junior Golf Association decided to change it's policy and allow non-motorized carts in tournament play.

The next step is to work out whether it is better to push or pull your buggy around the course. The answer to this is fairly straight forward and all you have to do is observe the posture of someone walking with a push buggy compared to a pull buggy. The main difference that you will notice is when pulling, you are creating a twisting effect on your spine which causes muscle imbalances and a lot more pressure placed on your shoulders, elbows, and knees (leading to an increased chance of injury). As golf is a game that is predominantly played in one direction, the last thing we want to do is anything that causes a greater asymmetry within the body! Push buggies however, offer an advanced alternative to the traditional pull buggy by taking advantage of the forward momentum of walking and thereby reducing muscular fatigue. Pull buggies are also generally harder to manoeuvre and control (I'm sure most of us have had an experience of a zig-zagging buggy almost running over our feet as we walk up the fairway), and the latest research also shows that players tend to shoot lower scores whilst using a push buggy rather than a pull buggy!

When it does come to using a push buggy, there are a few points to keep in mind:

  • Ensure that the handle sits around 'belt' height so your arms and shoulders can stay relaxed;

  • Keep the buggy close to your body with your elbows at 90 degrees and use your big stabilising muscles to push the buggy along (predominantly your core and leg/buttock muscles);

  • Invest in a good quality push buggy (they are worth their weight in gold);

  • Always take time to warm up correctly before each round (stay tuned for my next article on the 'Ultimate Golf Warm-Up' routine);

  • If you are a senior player or you play on a fairly hilly course, look at motorised push buggy options that will allow you to expend less energy when walking up those dreaded hills!

My last piece of advice would be no matter whether you push, pull, carry, or ride, at least take every opportunity you can to stay active and walk as much of the course as possible. We should feel so privileged to be involved in such a great game, and my mission through these articles is to keep as many of you moving and playing as well as possible for as long as possible!


Josh Nelson

Dr. Josh Nelson is a Sports Chiropractor and Level 3 Golf Medical Professional through the Titleist Performance Institute. He is the owner of CORE GOLF Injury & Performance based in Brisbane, Australia and he specialises in Injury Management/Rehabilitation, Golf Specific Screenings/Assessments, and Training Programs for Golfers of all ages and levels.

  • Dan Musicant

    I read the article and comments and have to say I don't think the cart pusher is venturing onto a green, it's just a close cut fairway. In any case, yes, I know that it's forbidden to pull or push carts onto greens. I avoid doing so but want to say that I think it's pretty much absurd. Your cart wheels with average of less than 20 pounds on each are not going to damage a green an iota compared to the damage done by simply walking carrying nothing but a putter. Walking, your full body weight is on the bottom of one foot at a time as you walk. A cart is nothing in comparison. So, yes, I think it's a silly conceit that exists that it's a no-no to push/pull your unmotorized golf cart (i.e. push cart or pull cart) across a green. Letting it rest on a green, I think that's not good, particularly for a two wheeled pull cart as the bottom could damage a green. Even that is unlikely. Carry or push/pull? I carried when I was 21 or so. My feet have issues now, so I use a pull cart. Will likely get a push cart now, I hear it's easier on the body.

  • Dcumman

    Dear Sir, thank you for your article. I'm researching this issue for myself. Your choice of photos is tho is unfortunate. In golf it is unacceptable to wheel your buggy across greens nor even carry your bag into a green as this places unnecessary wear and tear on the greens. It ranks right up there with not repairing your pitch mark. A golf course upon seeing this practice would ask you to stop and then to not return if you were caught doing it again.

  • Frehairfortnight

    Very difficult to believe that carrying a weight " 8- 15kgs uses only 3 extra calories per 9 holes .suspect those who carry i.e. Me walk less distance but surely that couldn't be such a big factor in that calorific difference. Am 72 caddied with full sized men's bags when 12-16 and have carried a bag every since. Local course is very hilly moorland and believe despite what is printed here that the weight bearing exercise is very beneficial. About a deade ago I read a book loaded with medical research about the very significant physical and mental advantages ,especially to older people of regularly doing weight bearing tasks including carrying messages home in a bag( preferably two) and from what I see of the physical specimens on local courses the few still carrying bags look in considerably better shape . Get a light pencil bag designed for carrying ,carry only as many clubs as you need to enjoy this great game,( I carry 8 ,no more golf balls than I am likely to every lose in a round (adjust for local or unknown difficulty of other course, minimal clothing change,pocket of tees and a ball marker ,small drink . Each to their own but where in the article was the added advantage to the course of carrying as opposed to using wheeled vehicles many heavy with batteries and more gear than ever needed - ask an experienced green keeper whether walking or cart use is better for the course and a course architect about the huge additional cost of tracks and track maintenance to the club.

  • Debra Pentz

    Great article. As a chiropractor and golfer I'm always ask that question. So now I have some real research. I personally however like to walk and carry my bag. I have a light bag and carry only 10 clubs. I'm 62 and think the weight bearing exercise is good for me.

  • dennis hoile

    lol, oopsadasie, get that dude off the green with his cart (apols) just had to IN GOLF, WE TRUST

  • Jason Powers

    I agree that carrying clubs may cause injuries, but why do they cause injuries? The problem is that the person carrying is not fitted properly for the bag (which includes setting the straps), the bag is too big for the young golfer, or maybe there's way too many items in the bag that is causing it to be too heavy. I can already tell that the junior listed in the above picture has a bag too big and the pockets are bulging which means he has way too much stuff in it. If he's playing a fun round, all he needs are balls, tees, a sharpie, coins/markers, a rangefinder, and a water bottle. I've been playing golf for 30 years. I prefer to carry my bag. Technology of bags has improved leaps in bounds from single strap Burton bags. But golf is an athletic sport. It's important to stretch and warm up. It's also important to stay in shape. And what better time while they are young to provide the tools to stay in shape or get in shape so he can walk and carry his bag.

  • Rick Graf

    I enjoyed your article. My body told me long ago what research now proves. I cringe whenever I see anyone, especially a junior player, carrying his or her bag. I wish the colleges would allow their players to use push carts too. Maybe some do?

Select Your Language

    Please Sign In